WP3 – Upscaling of thermal power production and optimized operation of EGS plants

The main objective of this work package is to improve the thermal power production and optimize its use in any EGS plants exploiting fractured crystalline geothermal reservoirs by minimising environmental issues.

D3.1 Design of an heat exchanger for cold reinjection (Confidential)

D3.2 1D/2D DFN Model of boreholde fractures and hydraulic circulation simulations

D3.3 – Hydro-thermal model matching colder reinjection design (Confidential)

D3.4 Evaluation of crystalline outcrop analogue (In validation by the EC)

D3.5 – Characterization of scaling (In validation by the EC)

D3.6 – Summary of petrophysical analysis

D3.7 – Offset-VSP imaging of 3D geometry of fractures in granite (Confidential)

Summary: This delivreable presents the results of a complete sensitivity analysis performed on the OVSP data in the geological context of Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal site. It provides numerous synthetic seismic experiments helping the readers to understand the capabilities and the robustess of the applied method. As the result, the full wave inversion (FWI) method is able to provide the localisation of the modeled faults and characterize them accurately. The FWI and in the acceptable noisy level, detect, delineate and characterize with reliability and accuracy the faults (even thin faults compared to the wavelength). We also improved our understanding of the structural geology around the site, and the 3D structural model has been improved. Uncommon seismic features observed in the OVSP real data have been reproduced qualitatively and understood.

D3.8 – Fiber optic behaviour in very saline conditions (Confidential)

Summary: Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing is an innovative technology enabling to turn a fibre optic into hundreds to thousands of sensors. Using this solution, various parameters can be monitored such as temperature, strain or acoustic. The installation of fibre optic cables in wells then appears as a powerful solution for the monitoring of geothermal production impacts on the underground. In order to study the durability of such installation in harsh geothermal contexts, fibre optic integrity is monitored both with an experimental study and using the results of two deployments in the geothermal plant of Soultz-sous-Forêts. This work also involved the monitoring of temperature, strain and of possible induced seismicity, using the combination of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS), Distributed Strain and Temperature Sensing (DSTS) and Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS).

D3.9 – Hydro-thermal model using VSP analysis and colder reinjection tests

D3.10 – Summary of chemical and physical tests for colder reinjection


WP4 – Enhancing petroleum sedimentary basins for geothermal electricity and thermal power production

The main objective of the WP4 is to use existing oil producing wells to produce electricity and heat at a low unit cost by taking advantage of the existing wellbores.

D4.1 – Mapping of heat resources in Vermilion portfolio in France (Confidential)

D4.2 – Mapping of potential heat end-users around Vermilion sites in France

D4.3 – Heat Exchanger installed to connect VERMILION facilities to an end-user (In validation by the EC)

Summary: MEET Deliverable D4.3 presents the equipment design to deliver heat to the Condorcet high-school, located in Arcachon (France), from the oil concession “Les Pins” located 250 meters from the high-school. The key pieces of the equipment and their design are presented: the insulated pipeline and the heat exchanger, designed to deliver a capacity of 400kW. The project is expected to deliver, starting at the end-of March 2021, some 800 MWh per year, thus covering more than 90% of the heating needs, and avoiding 190 tons of CO2 emissions per year.

D4.4 – 2 pilot sites (oil producing well with high water %) equipped with 40 KWe ORC to produce electricity (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This deliverable D4.4 covers the ORC unit test results on two oil wells located in sedimentary basins in France. Oil wells in mature oilfields typically produce large volumes of hot brine that are reinjected in the reservoir. Within the frame of the MEET project, VERMILION and ENOGIA have designed and tested a 20 kW ORC unit to convert the geothermal heat to power, with innovative thermodynamic cycles. The tests demonstrated gross power production between 16 kW and 20 kW gross at lowest outside air temperature, which is the main parameter impacting the performance. Test at well CNY40, which was 4 months long, demonstrated efficiencies of 5% gross and 3% net. Test at CAX47 was too short to yield tangible conclusions, due to many technical issues. Although the technical feasibility is demonstrated, the economic benefits are not proved yet.

D4.5 – Methodology and tool for an economic evaluation of end-offield life conversion

D4.6 – Detailed technicaleconomic study for a specific Vermilion site (Confidential)


WP5 – Variscan Geothermal Reservoirs (Granitic and Metamorphic Rocks)

The main objective is to evaluate and demonstrate how the European Variscan basement can be characterized and enhanced for deep geothermal energy production.

D5.1 – Review and selection of outcrop-analogues of the four Variscan reservoir types in regard to sample collection

D5.2 – Sample acquisition completed (Confidential)

D5.3 – Strategy and design for chemical stimulation at UDDGP-project (Confidential)

D5.4 – Evaluation of outcropanalogues of the four Variscan reservoir types (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This public deliverable 5.4 done in the framework of the MEET project, aims at evaluating the different investigations performed in the four geothermal reservoir analogues presented in deliverable 5.1. Based on a combination of field work and laboratory experiments, the present evaluation aims at confirming the choice of the analogues and adapt the working strategy if necessary.
The different analogues cover four Variscan reservoir types: Variscan metasedimentary (and metavolcanics) successions and Variscan crystalline basement overprinted or not by younger extensional tectonics. The analogues have been treated separately according to a given scientific problematic of the respective studies leader and the reader must be aware that the corresponding demonstration sites do not present the same level of technological readiness.
The performed investigations allow the consortium to conclude that the chosen analogue fulfil all the expectations presented in Deliverable 5.1. Further investigations are planned and results will be presented in Deliverable D5.9 “Field-based characterization of the four reservoir types” to confirm all the working hypotheses proposed so far.

D5.5 – Database of petrophysical and fluid physical properties and recommendations for model parametrization of the four Variscan reservoir types

D5.6 – Static and dynamic geothermal models of the four Variscan reservoir types at reservoir scale or as conceptual models (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This report D5.6 describes the work related to modeling of heat extraction from Variscan reservoirs done in the framework of the H2020 MEET project. As part of the WP5, dynamic geothermal models of the four Variscan reservoirs at reservoir scale or as conceptual models are examined for heat extraction potential.
This report describes reservoir scale dynamic simulations. Different scenarios of injection and production are defined to examine the suitability of the geothermal site. Since Göttingen (Germany) and Havelange (Belgium) geothermal sites are undeveloped and data for the modelling approach cannot be provided by analogue site studies, a sensitivity analysis is performed. Results of the sensitivity analysis provide an insight for further laboratory and field investigations. It also provides a guideline for the affecting parameters and well placement to estimate its impact on heat extraction for the given geothermal field. Furthermore, site specific models are developed, based on a small-scale, local fracture network map of Göttingen and Havelange demonstration sites. Initial results show that flow rates for Göttingen is low whereas Havelange can reach high production flow rates. For United Downs (UK) and Soultz-sous-Forêts (France), operational fields reservoir scale simulations are performed to examine the different operational scenarios and found that colder fluid injection is possible for Soultz-sous-Forêts and hydraulic stimulation was partially successful for the United Downs.

D5.7 – Strategies and recommendations for stimulation operations for the four Variscan reservoir types (In validation by the EC)

Summary: An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) extracts heat from fluids that flow through fractures in an otherwise impermeable rock, such as the granites and metasedimentary rocks considered in this Deliverable 5.7 (public report) of Work Package 5 (Variscan Geothermal Reservoirs) within the HORIZON 2020 EU-project MEET. It is often necessary to increase fluid flow through the fractures to increase the amount of geothermal energy produced, and this is called “stimulation”. Several stimulation techniques are available, these including thermal stimulation (injecting cool fluids to induce thermal contraction), chemical stimulation (using chemicals to dissolve minerals) and hydraulic stimulation (increasing fluid pressure until existing fractures are reactivated (hydraulic stimulation) or until new fractures are generated (hydraulic fracturing)). Use of these different stimulation techniques are illustrated by two geothermal systems from which energy is currently being extracted. Two other sites are assessed and the potential of different stimulation methods are discussed. For example, if is shown that hydraulic stimulation would be risky if the rocks being stimulated are in hydraulic connectivity with the surface. The report also considers the best methods to determine which stimulation technique would be most appropriate for any site, and how production of geothermal energy can be enhanced using new drilling techniques.

D5.8 – Report on long-term sustainability of fractured rock system based on laboratory experiments (In validation by the EC)

Summary: Deliverable D5.8 presents the current results of all experiments conducted at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in the framework of the EU MEET project, WP5, Task 5.1. The experiments investigate the short and long-term response of fracture permeability to changes in physical and chemical boundary conditions (i.e., pressure, stress, temperature, and fluid chemistry). The implications of this study relate to the sustainability of heat energy supply from metamorphic rocks (slates in particular) that, to date, have not been targeted for EGS. The results of this experimental study are crucial for setting up the actually planned concept of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) at the University of Göttingen campus but are also directly applicable to any geothermal site having a similar geology. The investigation does not only provide input for the fractures as heat exchangers in the underground but also for numerical reservoir models that forecast the evolution of the energy output from EGS.

D5.9 – Field-based characterisation of the four reservoir types completed (In validation by the EC)

Summary: In an “Enhanced Geothermal System” (EGS), heat is extracted from rocks that have low natural porosity and permeability, with artificial methods being required to increase the flow of hot fluids through the rock (“stimulation”). A group of rocks that may be suitable EGSs are the igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks that are related to the Variscan mountain-building event that occurred approximately 300 million years ago. They are important because they underlie large parts of central and western Europe. A vital method to improve understanding of geothermal reservoir rocks, including developing the most appropriate stimulation strategies, is geological analyses of data from wells and of exposed analogues of the reservoir rocks. This Deliverable (D5.9) describes such analyses undertaken as part of the H2020 MEET Project. The analyses reflect the different states of development of the four MEET demonstration sites, and therefore of the data availability:
• A fault zone in Death Valley (California, USA) has been used as an analogue for the active Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal field (France), in which granites are affected by post-Variscan faulting. Fieldwork in Death Valley included detailed mapping of fractures associated with the fault zone, analysis of rocks along the faults, and the alteration of the host rocks caused by the flow of hot fluids.
• The geochemical and physical properties of granites from Cornwall have been analysed to improve understanding of the recently-drilled EGS project at United Downs (Cornwall, UK).
• An oil exploration well drilled in the 1980s at Havelange (Belgium) has been used to investigate the geothermal potential of Variscan meta-sedimentary rocks, with work including reinterpretation of well-log data, analysis of core from the well, fieldwork on exposures of the same rock type in the region, and geochemical analysis of spring water.
• Rock exposures in the Harz Mountains (Germany) have been used as analogues for the Variscan rocks that are predicted to occur at depths of more than about 1.5 km beneath Göttingen (approximately 40 km SW of the Harz Mountains). Fieldwork has focussed on developing an understanding of the rock types and their structures to predict what will be encountered when a well is drilled at Göttingen.
As part of the MEET project, well and core data from the Paris and Aquitaine basins were studied to determine the geothermal potential of sedimentary basins (Deliverable D3.6, Summary of Petrophysical Analysis). It was realised that this dataset included information about Variscan basement rocks. A description of the Paris and Aquitaine basins is included in this Deliverable because it offers further insights into the geothermal potential of Variscan rocks, in this case mostly high-grade metamorphic rocks (gneisses).


WP6 – Demonstration of electricity and thermal power generation

The main objective of this work package is to develop a small-scale heat to power innovative product (ORC) to address a new market: low temperature and low flow geothermal sources for electricity production.

D6.1 – ORC functional specification (Confidential)

D6.2 – ORC detailed design files (Confidential)

D6.3 – 3x ORC units ready to be shipped

D6.4 – ORC users’s manual including installation procedure

D6.5 – Summary of additional heat production capacities at the Soultz-Sous-Forêts site

D6.6 – Heat exchanger material specifications report (Confidential)

D6.7 – Brine transportation technologies and field tests design (Confidential)

D6.8 – End user screening in the vicinity of Vermilion sites (Confidential)

D6.9 – Performance results analysis report from the 3 first demo sites (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This deliverable D6.9 named “performance results analysis report from 3 first demo sites” is done in the framework of MEET project, the aim of this project is to boost the development of EGS in Europe.
The D6.9 is a deliverable from WP6: demonstration of electricity and power generation. A part of WP6 consists of the demonstration of the feasibility of electricity production from various geothermal sources at low temperature and low flow. Thus, ORC units, machines which convert heat into electricity were deployed at three demonstration sites. The sites were selected due to their characteristics (temperatures, flows and geological context) and the machines adapted to each location as stated in the deliverable D6.3: “3 ORC ready to be shipped”. The machines were tested for three months at the first three demonstration sites: Chaunoy (France), Grásteinn (Iceland) and Soultz-sous-Forêts (France).
This document deals with the analysis of the energy performance of each site and discusses the results and conclusions related to the corrosion analysis of the heat exchangers in the ORC demonstrated at each site.

D6.10 – 3x ORC units, adapted to the second demo sites and ready to be installed (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This report describes the work carried out on the heat-to-electricity demonstration machines within the framework of the MEET project. This document is a part of WP6, which consists of adapting Organic Rankine Cycle machines to three new demonstration sites.
This report describes the adaptations made to the machines previously installed on the first demonstration sites. The paper details the characteristics of the new demonstration sites located in France, Iceland and Turkey, in the same geological contexts as the previous sites (sedimentary, volcanic and granite). It also summarizes the design carried out on the three machines based on the experience feedback from the results of the first tests (D6.9). Finally, it discusses the stages of manufacture and integration of machines at Cazaux in France (second sedimentary site), at Krauma in Iceland (second volcanic site) and at Balıkesir in Turkey (second granite site).

D6.11 – Heat production demonstration on a Vermilion site (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This public deliverable D6.11 was prepared in the framework of the MEET project and aims at presenting the results a coproduction project in SW France, where the hot brine produced together with oil on a petroleum site, is used to heat up a high school whose needs are 800 MWh/year. A heat exchanger transfers heat from the reinjection line of the petroleum site to the end user, through a 250 m long buried pipeline. The petroleum site can deliver 100% of the heating needs of the high school.

D6.12 – Summary of Goettingen site optimization for integration of geothermal resources in the energy supply

D6.13 – Performance results analysis report from the 3 second demo sites (In preparation)

D6.14 – Brine transportation field tests report (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This deliverable D6.14 is done in the framework of the Horizon 2020 MEET project aiming to boost and upscale the development of geothermal energy in Europe. It presents results of brine transportation technologies tested at Soultz-sous-Forêts site for hot brine produced in the geothermal plants of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and for the cold brine reinjected into the reservoir.

D6.15 – Roadmap for heat production from EU main geological contexts (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This public deliverable D6.15 was prepared in the framework of the MEET project and aims at presenting the scale-up potential of geothermal direct heat use at existing geothermal plants and existing oil fields. Cazaux oil field is located near a real estate project that needs clean energy for heating, and the long term geothermal heat resource is large enough to cover 100% of the needs. Chaunoy oil field residual geothermal heat could provide 80% of heating needs for a 2 ha greenhouse. In the case of a geothermal power plant in the Upper Rhine graben, several end-users are well-suited for geothermal energy supply, both technically and financially compared to gas heating. The sensitivity of levelized cost of heat to distance to geothermal source is investigated in detail and gives positive results. Heating insect farming is financially sustainable even if the farm is 10 km away. A 5 ha tomato greenhouse located 5 km away from the plant has a clear incentive to use geothermal energy versus gas. While stand-alone large aquaponics farm geothermal heating is more challenging financially, it can be developed as far a 4 km away from geothermal plant when it is developed jointly with greenhouses. Similarly, a spirulina farm jointly exploited with greenhouses, even 4 km away from the geothermal plant, is financially attractive. Drying of breweries waste is economically justified with geothermal energy up to at least 2 km. These economic analyses are quite conservative at 40 €/MWh for gas, making geothermal energy a very favorable energy swapping option.

D6.16 – ORC product datasheet for geothermal market (Confidential)

Summary: This deliverable D6.16 was prepared within the framework of the MEET project. It presents the technical sheets of the ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) machines developed during the project and adapted to the geothermal market. This deliverable highlights the two sizes of machine developed for the conversion of heat into electricity for low flow and low temperature geothermal sources.


WP7 – Economic and environmental assessment for EGS integration into energy system

The main objective of this work package is to enable investors to conduct comparative analyses of different energy technologies and choose one with the highest yield for the specific site to successfully determine usage of geothermal energy and integrate EGS into the electric and heat systems.

D7.1 – Open Access Decision Support Tool for optimal usage of Geothermal Energy

D7.2 – Geothermal energy potential development in different geological conditions (in validation by the EC)

Summary: This public deliverable D7.2 was prepared within the framework of the MEET project (H2020) and presents site specific analysis of EGS demonstration sites in various geological conditions. Within this activity the geothermal energy development potential will be evaluated from techno-economic perspective using the Decision-Making Support Tool for Optimal Usage of Geothermal Energy (DMS-TOUGE) developed as part of Deliverables D7.1 and D7.10, and Milestone M10. The emphasis of this deliverable is on choosing the most economically feasible and viable projects among different EGS demonstration sites in various geological conditions within existing market environment.

D7.3 – Upscaling of already existing geothermal provinces and coproduced oil fields (Confidential)

Summary: This confidential deliverable D7.3 was prepared within the framework of the MEET project (H2020) and presents site specific environmental and economic analysis of co-use/re-use of existing boreholes in sedimentary rocks and upscaling of the already existing geothermal province in granitic rocks. Within this activity the upgrade of existing geothermal provinces and extensions of existing oil wells with new EGS considering site specific environmental risks will be evaluated from techno-economic perspective using the Decision-Making Support Tool for Optimal Usage of Geothermal Energy (DMS-TOUGE) developed as part of Deliverables D7.1 and D7.10, and Milestone MS10.

D7.4 – Optimal usage of geothermal potential on already existing geothermal pilot sites (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This public deliverable D7.4 was prepared within the framework of the MEET project (H2020) and presents site specific evaluation of existing geothermal pilot sites identifying the optimal usage of geothermal potential at chosen sites. Within this activity the optimal usage of geothermal potential on already existing geothermal pilot sites is evaluated from techno-economic perspective taking also into account socio-economic impacts. The optimal way of future geothermal energy usage on the existing chosen sites will is determined using the Decision-Making Support Tool for Optimal Usage of Geothermal Energy (DMS-TOUGE) developed as a part of Deliverables D7.1 and D7.10.

D7.5 – European Scale map of future EGS projects for various European geological conditions (In validation by the EC)

Summary: Deliverable 7.5 is a compilation of several 1:13.000.000 scale maps of Europe, each relating to one of the strategies studied in the project. For each map, relevant geospatial data related to surface infrastructure and subsurface reservoir were compiled and combined.
The maps were used to identify regions that appear suitable for transferring the respective strategy. The maps can thus be utilized as a basis for an initial, spatial screening and narrowing down of potential areas and further investigations on a regional and local scale.
In this report, each map and the geodata used for it are briefly explained.

The focus of the processing was on the use of freely accessible data and the consideration of the whole of Europe. Due to the overestimated availability of homogenised and complete geodata for the whole of Europe before the start of the project, the complexity and associated informative value of the maps had to be partially reduced. For this reason, numerous references and links have been included in the text to make it easier for future users to research further information, maps and geodata on their own.

D7.6 – List of EU wide perspective EGS projects (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This report was done in the framework of WP7 of the Horizon 2020 project MEET. The first part of this document includes a compilation of the most important characteristics of the geothermal demonstration sites that were investigated and worked on during the project period of MEET. The strategies tested at these sites for the realisation of EGS projects under different geological conditions are listed in the second part. The main focus of this part is on naming relevant sites and regions to which these strategies can be transferred in the future. In addition, it contains a brief explanation of the strategy, the work carried out, a list of particularly relevant criteria and further deliverables and publications.

D7.7 – Web-based map tool and recommendations for further operation (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This public report is done in the framework of the H2020 MEET project. It is produced for the work done in Deliverable 7.7 which includes the concept, design, creation and deployment of a web-based map viewer that helps the users to familiarize and engage with the geothermal landscape in Europe.

D7.8 – Catalogue of relevant spatial datasets for further GIS analyses on regional to local scale (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This public report is the explanation of Deliverable 7.8, a digital parameter database, and contains an overview of the database structure and the most important database elements. The database was designed and created to transfer important results and experiences from work packages 3 to 6 of the MEET project into a clear and sustainable form.
The focus is on linking parameters, methods, workflows and geodata that are of particular significance in the context of a geothermal project. For this reason, the format of a graph database was used, which is particularly suitable for complex relationships and data structures. This also ensures the connection to other freely accessible databases of the Semantic Web.

D7.9 – Data Management Plan (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This document represents the final version of the Data Management Plan (DMP) of the MEET project. It outlines the project and discipline-specific approach to Open Science and FAIR principles to facilitate future users’ access to the project’s publications and research data. It includes explanations of keywords and identifiers as well as licences and repositories to find and access data. It includes information on vocabularies and standards used, as well as copyright and intellectual property regulations for interacting with data. The criteria listed on quality assessment and quality control, as well as on metadata and software tools, enable the reuse of data. The two previous versions of the DMP (M6 and M24) contain further information on internal project workshops, surveys and decisions regarding data management.

D7.10 – Open Access Decision Support Tool for Optimal Usage of Geothermal Energy (Final version) (In validation by the EC)

Summary: This public deliverable D7.10 was prepared within the framework of the MEET project (H2020) and presents the final version of Open Access Decision Support Tool for Optimal Usage of Geothermal Energy (DMS-TOUGE). The deliverable is an extension of the Deliverable D7.1 where the first version of DMS-TOUGE was presented alongside with detailed User manual for the usage of the tool. Consequently, this deliverable presents upgrades and updated of the first version of the DMS-TOUGE. The final version of DMS-TOUGE combines technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of geothermal projects and therefore provides background for a comprehensive assessment of EGS projects. It is designed in such a way that should enable investors to compare different approaches of geothermal energy usage and choose the one with the best performance by integrating EGS into the electric and/or heat systems.


WP8 – Communication, dissemination and exploitation

The first objective of this WP8 is to plan and monitor stakeholder mobilisation, communication on project aims and disseminate the results to the scientific and industrial communities and to wider audience. The second objective is to exploit MEET project results.

D8.1 – Newsletter #1 – August 2018

D8.2 – Newsletter #2 – October 2019

D8.3 – Newsletter #3 – October 2020

D8.4 – Newsletter #4 – October 2021 (In validation by the EC)

D8.5 – Project website

D8.6 – 1st Geothermal week school organisation in Cergy

D8.7 – 2nd Geothermal week school organisation in Cergy

D8.8 – Technical Workshop Summary

D8.9 – Demonstration workshop summary (in validation by the EC)

Summary: A public demonstration workshop has been operated the 28th of January 2022 to present lessons learned from 6 topics of the MEET project:
• Mobile Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) units for electricity production
• Heat coproduction from oil and geothermal energy
• Corrosion / Scaling
• EGS reservoir analogue study
• Web-based map tool for geothermal community
• New support tool for decision makers
This public deliverable summarises the work invested to organise and lead this dissemination event. The last section provides also some information on how to access the data generated during this demonstration workshop.

D8.10 – Draft plan for use and dissemination of results – including exploitation roadmap and business plans (Confidential)

D8.11 – Final plan for use and dissemination of results – including exploitation roadmap and business plans (Confidential)

Summary: MEET wide scale studies will produce several Key Exploitable Results (KER) throughout the length of the project, which are identified based on the deliverables produced along the lifetime of the project, both public and confidential. The final plan for use and dissemination of results focusses on 6 KER identified during a dedicated workshop within MEET consortium and selected as they offer the best potential for dissemination and commercialization. For each selected KER a market analysis is exposed, a go to market strategy and an exploitation roadmap is proposed if relevant.